Stonehenge



image 1 This description of Stonehenge has the following headings: World Heritage Status, Stonehenge History, Associated Sites and Visitor Information.

World Heritage Status

When listing Stonehenge in 1986, UNESCO stated that Stonehenge became a World Heritage Site for two key reasons:

  • Stonehenge itself (3000-1500 BC). The famous prehistoric stone circle is visited by nearly 800,000 people a year. Its shaped stones, lintels, unique jointing and perfect geometry make it the most sophisticated stone circle in the world.

  • The ceremonial landscape. The surrounding area has a dense concentration of archaeological remains, including a processional avenue leading to the stones, hundreds of Bronze Age burial mounds, and many other important monuments such as the Cursus, Woodhenge and Durrington Walls.

    Together, Stonehenge and its landscape represent an incomparable testimony to prehistoric times. To protect such a wealth of archaeological features, the Stonehenge World Heritage Site covers 2,600 hectares (6,500 acres) of chalk downland and mixed arable fields.

    Stonehenge History


    image 2 There is nothing quite like Stonehenge anywhere in the world and for 5000 years it has drawn visitors to it. What drew people here over the centuries or why hundreds of people struggled over thousands of years to build this monument is still a mystery, but visitors from all over the world come to marvel at this amazing feat of engineering.

    Before Stonehenge was built thousands of years ago, the whole of Salisbury Plain was a forest of towering pines and hazel woodland. Over centuries the landscape changed to open chalk downland. What you see today is about half of the original monument, some of the stones have fallen down, others have been carried away to be used for building or to repair farm tracks and over centuries visitors have added their damage too. In earlier times, it was quite normal to hire a hammer from the blacksmith in Amesbury and come to Stonehenge to chip bits off. As you can imagine this practice is no longer permitted!

    Building Phases

    The Beginning

    Stonehenge was built in three phases. The first was a circle of timbers surrounded by a ditch and bank. The ditch was dug by hand using animal bones, deer antlers which were used as pickaxes to loosen the underlying chalk and then the shoulder blades of oxen or cattle were used as shovels to clear away the stones. Excavations of the ditch have recovered antlers that were left behind deliberately and it was by testing their age through radio carbon dating we now know that the first henge was built over 50 centuries ago, that is about 3100 BC. Thats where the mystery begins. We havent just found old bones, around the edge of the bank we also found 56 holes now known as Aubrey Holes, named after the 17th century antiquarian, John Aubrey, who found them in about 1666. We know that these holes were dug to hold wooden posts, just as holes were dug later to hold the stone pillars that you see today. So this was the first stage built about 5050 years ago, wooden post circle surrounded by a deep ditch and bank.

    About 4000 years ago

    Then about 4,000 years ago - 2,100 BC and about 2,000 years before the Romans set foot in Britain, Stonehenge was rebuilt. This time in stone. Bluestones were used. These came from the Prescelli Mountains in Pembroke, South Wales 245 miles (380kms), dragged down to the sea, floated on huge rafts, brought up the River Avon, and finally moved overland to where they are today. It was an amazing feat when you consider that each stone weighs about five tons. It required unbelievable dedication from ancient man to bring these stones all the way from South Wales.

    The Third Stage

    Before the second phase of Stonehenge was complete, work stopped and there was a period of abandonment. Then began a new bigger, even better Stonehenge. Just under 4,000 years ago, about 2,000 BC, the third and final stage produced what we see today.

    The bluestones were dug up and rearranged, and this time even bigger stones were brought in from the Marlborough Downs, 20 miles (32 kms) away. These giant sandstones or Sarsen stones, as they are now called were hammered to size using balls of stone known as 'mauls'. Even today you can see the drag marks. Each pair of stones was heaved upright and linked on the top by the lintels. To get the lintels to stay in place, the earlier wood working techniques were used. They made joints in stone, linking the lintels in a circular manner using a tongue and groove joint, and subsequently the upright and lintel with a ball and socket joint or mortice and tenon. This was all cleverly designed on the alignment of the rising of the mid summer sun.

    How did they get these stones to stand upright? The truth is nobody really knows. It required sheer muscle power and hundreds of men to move one of these megaliths, the heaviest weighing probably about 45 tons.
    Stonehenge was formerly owned by a local man, Sir Cecil Chubb. He gave it to the nation in 1918 and it is now managed by English Heritage on behalf of the Government. It is without doubt one of the finest prehistoric monuments in existence and an even more remarkable mystery.
    It is thought that the name Stonehenge originates from the Anglo-Saxon period the old English word 'henge' meaning hanging or gibbet. So what we have is literally 'the hanging stones', derived probably from the lintels of the trilithons which appear to be suspended above their massive uprights. Today the word 'henge' has a specific archaeological meaning: a circular enclosure surrounding settings of stones and timber uprights, or pits.

    Associated Sites



    Landscape of Stonehenge

    Over time, the landscape around Stonehenge underwent substantial change and development. In the Neolithic period long barrows and huge earthworks such as the Cursus and Durrington Walls were created. In the Bronze Age hundreds of round barrows were built for the burial of chieftains or leaders, often with grave goods to support them on their journey into the next world. The Avenue, a ceremonial approach to the Stones aligned on the midsummer sunrise, was also built around this period. Altogether, the Stonehenge World Heritage Site comprises over 400 scheduled ancient monuments.

    Woodhenge

    Three kilometres to the north- east of Stonehenge, Woodhenge is another henge monument. Dated to around 2,300BC, originally it comprised six concentric rings of wooden post. It was probably covered with a roof, or perhaps the wooden posts were joined in the Stonehenge fashion. Now, although there is no evidence for animal or human sacrifice at Stonehenge, some believe that the presence of the grave of a young child, found at Woodhenge, would seem to indicate a ritual sacrifice, possibly a dedicatory burial.

    The Cursus

    Another feature worth mentioning, which was built before the stone settings, is the Cursus which lies to the north. It consists of two straight banks and ditches 90-130 metres apart running 2.8 kilometres in length, from east to west. When it was called the Cursus in the eighteenth century, it was thought to be some sort of racetrack. Some people also think that it has a processional ritual use. However, its true function remains a mystery.


    Visitor Information



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    Telephone 01980 624715
    E-mail customers@english-heritage.org.uk
    Website www.english-heritage.org.uk
    Entrance fee Adult 5.90. Children 3.00 Concessions 4.40


    Open

    Open all year. Closed Christmas Eve and Christmas Day. Opening hours 9.30am - 6pm but 9am - 7pm between 1 June and 31 August.

    Facilties

  • Parking Stonehenge has good parking, although it can become crowded.
  • Disabled Access There is reasonable disabled access throughout.
  • Shops and catering. There are shopping and catering facilities next to the car park.

    Care and Maintenance English Heritage is charged with caring for Stonehenge and is committed to its conservation and good management and preservation for future generations. In the landscape around it, The National Trust which owns nearly 1500 acres of it are equally concerned for the well- being of this area. And if you have the time, an exploration of the surrounding countryside, with its henges, and barrows and all the other monuments, is well worthwhile. This is a vast prehistoric scene, with Stonehenge as the ultimate expression of the power which held society together at that time.

     

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    World Heritage Sites of Wessex



     

    These details were last updated on
    26 AUG 2007

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